Toypurina, a Kumi-Vit (or Tongva) woman from the village of Javachit in today’s San Gabriel Valley, California, was born nine years before the Spanish began colonizing southern California. The Spanish would have identified her as a Gabrielino, a term that identified all native people who were relocated to San Gabriel Mission (est. 1771) and baptized. A leader of an insurrection against the San Gabriel Mission in 1785, she continues to be a symbol of resistance to Spanish colonization.
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Women in American History: A Social, Political, and Cultural Encyclopedia and Document Collection Volume One: Precolonial North America To The Early Republic – Dr. Peg A. Lamphier And Dr. Rosanne Welch, Editors
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